As a way to review for the exam, I would like you to consider these major course themes. For each make a list of topic points that relate to each of the major civilizations we studied – Mesopotamia and Greece.
1. Role of geography in the development of a civilization
2. The evolving role of leadership in ancient cultures
3. The role of the average citizen in ancient cultures
4. The characteristics of a society that allow it to flourish
5. The role of cultural stories in defining a civilization.
Tomorrow we will finish discussing the Hansen and then split into groups to exchange ideas about the topics above. Enjoy.
For homework over break I would like you to do two things. First you should review the terms, chronologies, and maps from the semester in preparation for the exam. To help you I have attached a list of terms from each unit. Second, please read the chapter from Hanson’s “Carnage and Culture” attached below. Be able to answer the questions and define the terms below.
1. How does dying in a sea battle differ from dying in a land battle?
2. Why was Salamis one of the most deadly battles in naval warfare history?
3. Why did Greeks consider drowning the worst of deaths?
4. How is the story of Pythius the Lydian important to understanding Persian way of thinking?
5. Why do we know almost nothing about the Persian war dead?
6. What are the key differences between the Persian and Greek
– political systems?
– legal system?
7. Why did the Greeks have to engage the Persians at Salamis?
8. Why was the concept of freedom the key to Greek victory at Salamis?
9. What are the four parts of freedom for a Greek sailor?
10. What is the legacy of Salamis?
Please finish The Histories. Use the following questions as a reading guide:
1. How do the post-Thermopylae battle strategies of Demaratus and Achaemenes differ?
2. Why did the bulk of the Greek fleet end up at Salamis?
3. How does the Battle of Salamis start?
4. Why do you think the Greeks had such great success in the naval battle?
5. Who is Artemesia and what does Xerxes say in reference to her?
6. What is Xerxes afraid of after the battle?
7. What is an Angarum?
Continue with The Histories. Read through page 97 and the beginning of Book VIII. Use the following study questions to help take notes. Be ready to answer them in class on Tuesday.
1. Summarize the exchange between Demaratus and Xerxes in section #4. How does it exemplify the differences in cosmogony between the Persians and the Greeks?
2. Why does Herodotus think Athens played such a key role in outcome of the Persian Wars? What decision does Themistocles make that is crucial to their eventual victory?
3. What is significant about the fact that Leonidas elite fighting force were “all of them fathers with sons living”?
4. What does Xerxes make of the Spartan battle preparations?
5. Why was fighting in a narrow mountain pass advantageous to the Spartans?
6. What role does Ephialtes of Malis play in the Spartan defeat?
7. Why does Leonidas believe that his death at Thermopylae will ultimately save Sparta?
8. Note the treatment of Leonidas’ body. What does it remind you of?
9. What is instructive about the stories of Aristodemus, Eurytus, and Pantites?
10. How do the post-Thermopylae battle strategies of Demaratus and Achaemenes differ?
Tonight you will return to Herodotus. Please review your notes on who he is and from what perspective he writes. Remember he is the author of On Babylon . Another of his great works is The Histories which is attached below. It is his account of the Persian Wars.Read pgs. 79-88. Use these questions as a reading guide and be ready to discuss them in class. As always take good notes.
Introduction and Lydia
1. What does Herodotus blame for the “ancient enmity” between the Greeks and the Persians?
2. What role does the Oracle of Delphi play in Croesus’ decision to attack the Persians?
3. What advice does Sandanis give Croesus about the Persians?
4. Contrast the arguments made first by the Persians and then by Dionysius before the sea battle between the Ionians and the Persians,
5. What is netting?
6.What happened to Mardonius’ fleet and army?
7. What does it mean to “give earth and water” to the Persian king?
8. What is the significance of Hippias? Where have we seen him before?
9. What role do the Spartans play at Marathon?
10. What attribute does Miltiades think will save Athens?
11. Describe the Athenian battle formation. How did it contribute to their victory?
12. What role does Mardonius play in Xerxes’ decision to invade Greece?
13. What was Xerxes grand design for world domination?
14. What does Xerxes reaction to the storm destroying his bridge tell us about his cosmogony?
15. What does the expression “Day was thus turned into night” mean?
Upon further reveiw, I have decided to not have you start the Herodotus tonight. Instead I would like you to enjoy your evening. See you tomorrow.
There is no homework tonight. Please come ready to take notes tomorrow about Athenian history. If you have some free time and are interested, I have attached a 20 page summary of Athenian history during the Archaic period. It is not required reading though.