Last reading assignment for the semester. Yahoo!!!
Please finish the Carnage and Culture chapter. Use the the following questions to guide your reading:
1. To what does Hanson attribute the Greeks’ ability to develop the best battle strategy at Salamis?
2. What is Eleutheria? Who is Zeus Eleutherios? How is eleutheria manifested in Greek life?
3. What is the legacy of Salamis?
For Tuesday, you have two reading assignments. First please finish The Histories. Use the following questions as a reading guide:
1. How do the post-Thermopylae battle strategies of Demaratus and Achaemenes differ?
2. Why did the bulk of the Greek fleet end up at Salamis?
3. How does the Battle of Salamis start?
4. Why do you think the Greeks had such great success in the naval battle?
5. Who is Artemesia and what does Xerxes say in reference to her?
6. What is Xerxes afraid of after the battle?
7. What is an Angarum?
The second assignment is to read pgs. 27-43 in Carnage and Culture. This book by Victor Hansen is about the battles in human history which most shaped the condition of our modern world. The chapter you will read treats the Battle of Salamis. Please read the section and know these terms and questions.
1. Why is drowning the worst of deaths?
2. What is it about naval warfare and the design of triremes that made the Battle of Salamis particularly deadly?
3. What elements of the Persian and Greek systems and cultures does Hansen set in opposition to each other?
Read through page 97 and the beginning of Book VIII.
Take good notes and be able to answer these questions
1. Summarize the exchange between Demaratus and Xerxes in section #4. How does it exemplify the differences in cosmogony between the Persians and the Greeks?
2. Why does Herodotus think Athens played such a key role in outcome of the Persian Wars? What decision does Themistocles make that is crucial to their eventual victory?
3. What is significant about the fact that Leonidas elite fighting force were “all of them fathers with sons living”?
4. What does Xerxes make of the Spartan battle preparations?
5. Why was fighting in a narrow mountain pass advantageous to the Spartans?
6. What role does Ephialtes of Malis play in the Spartan defeat?
7. Why does Leonidas believe that his death at Thermopylae will ultimately save Sparta?
8. Note the treatment of Leonidas’ body. What does it remind you of?
9. What is instructive about the stories of Aristodemus, Eurytus, and Pantites?
10. How do the post-Thermopylae battle strategies of Demaratus and Achaemenes differ?
Tonight you will return to Herodotus. Please review your notes on who he is and from what perspective he writes. Remember he is the author of On Babylon . Another of his great works is The Histories which is attached below. It is his account of the Persian Wars.
Read pgs. 79-88. Use these questions as a reading guide and be ready to discuss them in class. As always take good notes.
Introduction and Lydia
1. What does Herodotus blame for the “ancient enmity” between the Greeks and the Persians?
2. What role does the Oracle of Delphi play in Croesus’ decision to attack the Persians?
3. What advice does Sandanis give Croesus about the Persians?
4. Contrast the arguments made first by the Persians and then by Dionysius before the sea battle between the Ionians and the Persians,
5. What is netting?
6.What happened to Mardonius’ fleet and army?
7. What does it mean to “give earth and water” to the Persian king?
8. What is the significance of Hippias? Where have we seen him before?
9. What role do the Spartans play at Marathon?
10. What attribute does Miltiades think will save Athens?
11. Describe the Athenian battle formation. How did it contribute to their victory?
12. What role does Mardonius play in Xerxes’ decision to invade Greece?
13. What was Xerxes grand design for world domination?
14. What does Xerxes reaction to the storm destroying his bridge tell us about his cosmogony?
15. What does the expression “Day was thus turned into night” mean?
Tonight’s homework is optional. Tomorrow, I plan to give you a quick one day overview of Athenian history in preparation for our reading about the Persian Wars. Attached is a twenty page summary from which I will lecture. Reading it over quickly may help your understanding of tomorrow’s class.
Tonight you will read The Code of a Citizen Soldier attached below. The poem is written by Tyrtaeus who is a Spartan poet writing in c. 640 B.C.E. Please consider the context in which he is writing and then be able to answer the following questions:
1. What attributes does Tyrtaeus champion in a citizen and how does he think they will be rewarded for showing those virtues?
2. This poem was written as least in part as Spartan “propaganda”. How does it further Spartan efforts at establishing their system?
3. Take a look at the date the poem was written. How might that inform your reading and interpretation of it?
4. Choose the passage that best summarizes the poem – no more than four lines. Why does that passage best define Tyrtaeus’ message?
Also tonight you should begin to put together the terms we have been studying from Gates of Fire, Plutarch, and Xenophon. You should pay special attention to how the terms relate to the THEMES of arete, eunomia, and leadership.